Our history affords numerous examples of efforts to secure state cooperation in the enforcement of federal laws, especially those marking abrupt changes in national policy. In practice, state cooperation has been most readily forthcoming in the administration of benefactory legislation. Most notably, federal grants-in-aid have been effective in helping to lift the standards of state services in such functional areas as highways, airports, public health, and agricultural technology. In another area, Selective Service has successfully employed local boards to enforce national policy. On the other hand, the Fugitive Slave law, the Civil Rights laws, National Prohibition, and the Emergency Price Control acts are reminders of the difficulties federal authorities have encountered in trying to enlist state aid in enforcement of national regulatory policies uncongenial to local sentiment. This article examines the experience under a permissive provision of the Fair Labor Standards Act, section 11(b), which authorizes the national government to reimburse state agencies aiding in enforcement.
Non-governmental organisations (NGO) have been recognised as important actors when it comes to achieving a sustainable development. Cooperation between the state and NGOs is desirable and this thesis is a contribution to the knowledge about the cooperation between NGOs and the state. The objective is to provide a deeper understanding of the cooperation between environmental NGOs and the Moldovan state. The environmental NGOs that are chosen are based in Chisinau and have worked with waste management and recycling. Further the thesis also aims to suggest factors that can affect the nature of the relationship between the chosen actors. To achieve this I carried out a case study of four environmental NGOs that are based in Chisinau. A representative from each NGO was interviewed about the organisation and its relationship to the state. Theories about clientelism and synergy were then used to analyse the results. I have come to the conclusion that there is a positive attitude towards cooperation with the state but at the same time the NGOs strive to maintain their independence from the state. In addition to this there are certain factors such as trust, availability of resources, and the characteristics of the NGOs can influence the nature of the relationship. This study is a contribution to the knowledge regarding NGO-state relationships and can be used as a base for further studies on this subject. This subject is important to study as NGOs have been identified as important actors in achieving a sustainable development and governments are encouraged to cooperate with them.
This chapter will describe noteworthy policy issues over the past decade that affected federal–state relations in the delivery of labor exchange services funded under the Wagner-Peyser Act of 1933. We will explain how the intergovernmental structure of the public employment service (ES) established under the Wagner-Peyser Act faced serious challenges during the 1990s and ultimately was strengthened. This was an era aptly described by Nathan and Gais (2000) as Second Order Devolution—a type of federalism that extols the merits of local authority and privatization of government services. While we will focus primarily on labor exchange policy of the 1990s, we also will summarize labor exchange policies from President Roosevelt’s New Deal of the 1930s to President Reagan’s New Federalism of the 1980s, and speculate on President George W. Bush’s labor exchange policy. The division of power between state and local control of workforce development programs is a pivotal issue of workforce federalism. Since the 1970s, a constant tension in workforce federalism has existed between state-administered labor exchange programs under the Wagner-Peyser Act and local-administered job training programs under the