In this paper we present a general model of organizational problem-solving in which organizations engage into an activity of cognition (un-derstanding the world in which they operate) and an activity of action (implementing those policies which cognition indicates as targets which better fit the world’s characteristics). Both cognition and action are adaptively determined as the organization faces limitations in the cog-nitive capabilities of its members and in its control functions. Interde-pendencies among relevant dimensions of the environment and among basic operational tasks are only partly understood. The model allows us to study various combinations of decompositions of cognition and ac-tion and various stylized reward systems. In particular, we can address issues of centralization vs. decentralization of cognition, production and rewards schemes and the possible complementarities among these choices. ∗Luigi Marengo gratefully acknowledges financial contribution from the European Com-mission within the project NORMEC (SERD-2000-00316), Research Directorate, 5th frame-work program. The authors are the only responsible for the opinions expressed in this paper, which are not necessarily those of the European Union or the European Commission.
Compared to the various forms of intergovernmental or public-private co-operation, transna-tional private self-regulation is a rather rarely studied case of global economic governance. Furthermore, existing research on transnational self-regulation has neglected the issue of corporate governance, which is central to the way capitalism is organised today. Transnational private self-regulation, however, appears to be a crucial part of any explanation of current changes of national models of corporate governance and, therefore, of the basic organisation of economic life. Three features of private self-regulation are singled out for a more detailed study, namely credit rating, private codes of “good corporate governance ” and the transna-tional harmonisation of accounting standards. In all of these cases, co-ordination service firms such as rating agencies, institutional investors and accounting companies play an important role as mechanisms for the transnational harmonisation of corporate governance. The paper concludes that the increasing role of transnational private self-regulation raises important nor-mative concerns and, in more particular, asks for the identification of alternative agency.
Trust and Governance asks several important questions: Is trust really essential to good governance, or are strong laws more important? What leads people either to trust or to distrust government, and what makes officials decide to be trustworthy? Can too much trust render the public vulnerable to government corruption, and if so what safeguards are necessary? In approaching these questions, the contributors draw upon an abundance of resources to offer different perspectives on the role of trust in government. Enriched by perspectives from political science, sociology, psychology, economics, history, and philosophy, Trust and Governance opens a new dialogue on the role of trust in the vital relationship between citizenry and government.
The concept of g̀overnance' has become a central catchword across the social and political sciences. In Governing and Governance, Jan Kooiman revisits and develops his seminal work in the field to map and demonstrate the utility of a sociopolitical perspective to our understanding of contemporary forms of governing, governance and governability. A central underlying theme of the book is the notion of governance as a process of interaction between different societal and political actors and the growing interdependencies between the two as modern societies become ever more complex, dynamic and.