Laporan Tahunan Hibah Bersaing Tahun ke 1 dari rencana 2 tahun Dibiayai oleh Kopertis Wilayah VI, Kemendikbud, sesuai dengan Surat Perjanian Pelaksanaan Hibah Penelitian Nomor: 001/K6/KL/SP/2013, tanggal 16 Mei 2013
Este artigo buscará discutir a literatura recente sobre governança global e o problema de déficit de accountability das instituições internacionais com uma análise baseada em três níveis que busca separar os âmbitos individual, estatal e global de modo a facilitar o entendimento de como se desenvolvem as relações entre estas esferas. Os principais desafios para a formação de uma ordem mais democrática no sistema internacional são as falhas de jurisdição, de participação e de incentivo, que dificultam o provimento dos bens públicos globais e a institucionalização de mecanismos formais de accountability. Um esquema para analisar esta nova configuração mundial será desenvolvido com o objetivo de criar um quadro teórico em que possa se conferir legitimidade aos arranjos de governança global a partir da idéia de que os indivíduos são os stakeholders que delegam seu poder às organizações internacionais. O argumento defendido é que a assimetria dentro destes níveis é o maior empecilho à democratização das organizações internacionais.ABSTRACTThis paper will discuss the recent literature on global governance and international institutions’ accountability deficit through a three-level-based analysis, which seeks to separate the individual, State and global spheres in a normative perspective. The main challenges to the development of a “more democratic” international order are the jurisdictional, participation and incentive flaws that difficult the provisioning of global public goods and the institutionalization of formal accountability mechanisms. A scheme is developed aiming to create a theoretical framework to discuss the global governance legitimacy using the idea that the individuals are the stakeholders who delegate power to the international organizations. It will also be argued the asymmetry inside those levels is the greatest impediment to the democratization of international organizations.Palavras-chave: Governança global, accountability, assimetria, organizações internacionaisKeywords: Global governance, accountability, asymmetry, international organizations. DOI 10.12957/rmi.2014.7481Recebido em 01 de outubro de 2013 / Received on October 1, 2013 Aceito em 20 de maio de 2014 / Accepted on May 20, 2014
At the UN Millennium Summit the world adopted an ambitious series of goals and targets to achieve by 2015. Good schools. Clean water. Ending hunger. Empowering women. Cutting disease. How can democratic governance help confront and overcome these global challenges? Many hope that electoral democracy will automatically improve human development. Yet the impact is not as simple and straightforward. Today many countries hold competitive elections for political leadership in legislative and executive offices. This is a critical step towards democracy yet these contests alone, even when free of manipulation and fraud, cannot automatically solve complex and intractable structural problems. The reason is that a lengthy and complex chain links the act of expressing preferences through casting a vote at the ballot box with the eventual outcome for political parties in parliaments and leaders in governments, the role of public sector officials at national and local levels, and finally the eventual management and delivery of public goods and services designed to alleviate pervasive poverty, reduce deep-rooted social inequality, and provide basic health care. This fragile chain often breaks at multiple stages, especially in vulnerable states. How can democratic governance be made to deliver more effectively? This study presents a dozen case-studies of practical governance innovations which have been tried and tested in developing countries. Cases are selected from places and contexts as diverse as Pakistan and
Second tier European cities (small metropolis or regional cities) are subject to permanent reconfigurations of their governance. These changes are the response to both external and internal transformations. On the one side, they are facing external pressures as increased competition between cities, European integration, legislative evolution or paradigm switch. On the other side, cities are dealing with internal problems: urban sprawl, socio-spatial segregation, actors’ fragmentation, financial issues, etc. These tensions renew themselves and take various shapes. They are wondering cities governance and ways to manage them. To cope with new challenges in a new context, cities are trying to reconfigure their collective action in a new spatiality and with new coordination modes. In this context, inherited institutional boundaries – that could be seen as obsolete or inadequate in a changing World – are particularly under pressure. Cities governments and their spatial limits are a central issue for researchers, politicians and urban actors, and a major component of the urban or metropolitan governance. Although second-tier cities are an essential part of the “polycentric system of European cities”, attention has essentially been focused on large metropolis and capital cities, where the problem occurred earlier. Furthermore, there is an extended literature on institutional change and the “rescaling”, but research mainly focused on the response of cities to economic changes; few analysis offer a good comprehension of particular trajectories and evolution of cities limits which are highly embedded in local context. These shortcomings make the reading of contemporary mutations particularly complex for local actors. Our paper presents our research on the development and the validation of an analytical framework to interpret changes in cities’ governments boundaries. We improved and used a framework based on institutional change and social change, which combined both institutional design theories and self-organization theories. The analytical framework had been tested on the last decades government limits changes of regional cities and small metropolis in France (Saint-Étienne, Metz), United Kingdom (Sheffield) and Belgium (Liège, Brussels). The research was carried on with historical and geographical data collected during research stays in each of these cities: historical evolution of cities limits, legislation’ development, urbanization trajectory, etc. The research leads to some conclusions. Firstly, it is possible to develop a generic analytical framework to identify and interpret mutations of city government limits. This framework helps to make a systematic identification of actors’ dynamics, internal or external pressure and spatial changes, and go ahead apparent dichotomy between quick adjustment and high stability of some governance configuration. Secondly, the analytical model shows there is a common scheme of city limits evolution, which is driven among others things by European common dynamics (specifically economic and political dynamic). Thirdly, despite similarities in cities government boundaries changes, the analytical model demonstrates the importance of local contexts to understand individual evolutions and the specific trajectory of a city’ limits. ; Peer reviewed
Presentation at professional conference and/or article in professional journal written by DePauw University faculty member. Item available in Archives. ; Contact Archives for copy. ; May 29-June 1, 2002
Presentation at professional conference and/or article in professional journal written by DePauw University faculty member. Item available in Archives. ; Contact Archives for copy. ; November 15-19, 2006
A governança corporativa pode ser compreendida como um modelo de gestão que visa construir uma boa relação entre gestores, controladores, acionistas minoritários e demais atores. Implantar a governança corporativa em uma organização requer muitas vezes uma mudança cultural. A governança corporativa como modelo organizacional necessita reforçaros comportamentos culturais de seus membros, de modo que apoiem os princípios e valores que incrementam a relação entre a organização e seus stakeholders. O processo de estruturação societária de uma organização é em grande parte determinada pela cultura. Sendo a cultura organizacional um conjunto de valores que diferencia uma organização das outras, é natural que estas organizações encontrem dificuldades de adaptação quando da implantação de valores internacionais. ; Corporate governance can be understood like a management model that aims to build a good relationship between managers, controllers, minority shareholders and other stakeholders.Implement corporate governance in an organization often requires a cultural change. Corporate governance as an organizational model needs reinforce cultural behaviors ofits members so as which support the principles and values that increment the relationship between the organization and its stakeholders. The process of corporate structuring of an organization is largely determined by culture. Being the culture a set of organizational values that distinguishes one organization from other, it is natural that these organizations find adjustment difficulties during the implementation of international values.
In this paper we intend to discuss the limits and potentialities of the new institutional arrangements aimed at metropolitan and regional governance, with an emphasis on the Brazilian case within a wider international perspective. We will describe the evolution of some solutions adopted in Europe to the dilemma of the organization of metropolitan areas. After a brief analysis of the contemporary institutional vacuum in Brazil, we describe some innovative arrangements implemented in the Greater ABC Region in the 1990s. We conclude that the system of Brazilian metropolitan governance has more similarities with the American model, characterized by a relatively pulverized and competitive system of local actors, than the European approach, which tends to evolve towards a more consolidated metropolitan system of public and private actors, gathered around a series of themes of common interest. ; Neste artigo buscamos discutir os limites e potencialidades de novos arranjos institucionais que estão se configurando na gestão metropolitana e regional, com ênfase no caso brasileiro em comparação com a evolução da perspectiva internacional mais ampla. Descrevemos a evolução de algumas das soluções que foram adotadas na Europa para o dilema da organização das áreas metropolitanas. Depois de uma breve análise do atual vácuo institucional em vigor no Brasil, descrevemos alguns arranjos inovadores implementados na região do Grande ABC na década de 1990. Concluiremos que o modelo de governança metropolitano brasileiro se assemelha mais à abordagem norte-americana, caracterizada por um sistema relativamente pulverizado e concorrencial de atores locais do que à linha européia, que tende a evoluir na direção de um sistema metropolitano mais consolidado de atores públicos e privados, reunidos em torno de temas de interesse comum.
"This collection of papers is based on an international workshop held in the summer of 2009 at the University of Duisburg-Essen. It brings together different perceptions regarding China, India and Bangladesh as they face the risks and crises of climate change and economic shocks like the recent global financial crisis. The papers reflect assumptions concerning the concept of Risk Society and discuss the extent to which Sustainable Development and the rather new concepts of Green Governance, Green Economy and the New Great Deal offer avenues for transforming risk societies into risk-avoiding and riskresistant societies and states. On the basis of these concepts, the current situation in China, India and Bangladesh is described, including the coping strategies which have been implemented so far." (auhtor's abstract)
This study was conducted to analyze the effect of corporate governance mechanisms, (Ownership Concentration, Size of the Board of Commissioners, Board Size, Komisarin Independent Audit Committee, Debt Policy and Firm Size) on financial performance. This research was conducted on a manufacturing company in Indonesia Stock Exchange.The population in this study amounted to 148 companies manufacturing and samples were taken of 20 companies with a passing stage purposive sampling. The data used in this research is secondary data. Data taken from the companies listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange in 2010-2012 were obtained from the Indonesian Capital Market Director (ICMD). Data collection techniques using methods of documentation and analysis techniques using multiple linear regression model.]Based on the results of hypothesis testing is known that the variable size of the board of directors, audit committee and manufacturing company size has no effect on CFROA on manufacturing companies in Indonesia Stock Exchange. Sementra independent commissioner terhdap CFROA significant negative effect on manufacturing companies in Indonesia Stock Exchange. Means that the more the number of independent komasaris sekamin lowering CFROA and vice versa. Variable concentration of ownership, board size and debt policies CFROA significant positive effect on the manufacturing company in Indonesia Stock ExchangeKeywords: Corporate Governance Mechanisms, CFROA, Ownership Concentration, Size BOC, Size Independent Commissioner Board, Audit Committee, Debt Policy, Company Size
Com a eclosão da crise econômica nos Estados Unidos em 2008, o G20 foi criado para ser o principal fórum com o intuito de aprofundar a cooperação econômica internacional entre as maiores economias desenvolvidas e emergentes. O principal objetivo do trabalho é examinar e analisar a atuação do G20 na governança global após a eclosão da crise econômica de 2008. Os resultados iniciais indicam que o G20 teve papel importante para a gestão da crise econômica de 2008. Todavia, o grupo perdeu a capacidade de construir consensos após 2009 com reflexos negativos sobre a governança econômica global.ABSTRACTWith the outbreak of the economic crisis in the United States in 2008, the G20 was created to be the main forum in order to strengthen international economic cooperation among the major developed and emerging economies. The main objective of this paper is to examine and analyze the G20 action on global governance after the outbreak of the economic crisis of 2008. Initial results indicate that the G20 had an important role in the management of the economic crisis of 2008. However, the group lost ability to build consensus after 2009 with negative effects on global economic governance.Palavras-Chave: G20; governança global; crise econômica de 2008.Keywords: G20; global governance; economic crisis of 2008.DOI: 10.12957/rmi.2015.14857 Recebido em 02 de Fevereiro de 2015. / Aceito em 30 de Abril de 2015. Received on February 2, 2015. / Accepted April 30, 2015
Since the early 1990s the United States has experienced a dramatic growth in the number of foreign firms choosing to trade their shares in U.S. markets. Meanwhile, Europe and other markets have not experienced this effect to the same extent. there has been an observable worldwide growth in stock market capitalization since the 1990s with an increasing number of foreign issuers choosing to cross-list their shares abroad, usually in the United States. Traditional explanations for why firms choose to cross-list have focused primarily on access to trade in more liquid markets. A more convincing theory for why firms cross-list, attributed to John C. Coffee and accepted by numerous scholars in recent years, is the bonding theory of cross-listing. The bonding theory postulates that firms cross-list their shares in order to voluntarily subject themselves to a market and a jurisdiction that has stricter disclosure standards and a greater threat of enforcement. There is an overall benefit created by the convergence in high-quality regulatory standards in that it equalizes the cost of compliance across jurisdictions while still maintaining the benefits to firms attributed to the bonding theory. Specifically, the adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards ("IFRS") and the push towards corporate governance convergence provides an opportunity for cross-listing firms to further benefit under the bonding theory. The adoption of IFRS, as a high-quality, transparent regulatory standard, coupled with convergent corporate governance standards, can eliminate additional costs of compliance across jurisdictions. This, in turn, will allow firms to reduce their cost of capital and increase liquidity within the framework of the bonding theory.