This thesis is about leadership of Heads of State or Government in transboundary crises. The main question is: "To what extent do pressure and personal traits influence leaders' ability to make sense of the Euro crisis?" Thirteen members of the European Council have been examined on pressure, experience, self-confidence and conceptual complexity, using a variety of methods that stem from political psychology or crisis management theories. After results on these four variables were found, expectations were made concerning leaders' speech acts and their sense making capacities. This was done to see whether personal traits of European leaders, combined with the pressure they're under, provide an explanation for the kind of or speed of sense making in the Euro crisis. Sense making has been assessed using a method of content analysis that focused on four main concepts: urgency, threat, responsibility and uncertainty. The period under inquiry is October 2009-June 2010, since this is the approximate time between the news on Greece's excessive debt level and the first decision of the European Council on the European Stability Mechanism. The results show that all leaders balance between switching from one mode to another (gap period). However, the time it takes leaders to overcome the gap period seems to depend on their scores on the variables. Highly pressured leaders perceive the crisis as more urgent and threatening. Leaders with a high level of self-condifence tend to be more self-oriented instead of focusing on creating a common understanding of the situation. Leaders that score high on conceptaul complexity find it difficult to make clear statements and are more nuanced int their speech acts. High pressured leaders with high self-confidence and low conceptual complexity tend to jump from the gap period to the action-mode. Low pressured leaders with low levels of self-confidence and high conceptual complexity tend to be more reflective and frame the crisis at first before jumping to action-mode.
Introduction. Setting the scene. Communication, culture and crisis in a transboundary context / Kwamena Kwansah-Aidoo and Amiso M. George -- Africa. Egypt. Dealing with political and cultural crisis in a troubled Middle East region / Ibrahim Saleh and Heba Metwali ; Ghana. Embarrassing the nation to pay Brazil : the Ghana Black stars player revolt at the 2014 FIFA World Cup / Kwamena Kwansah-Aidoo ; Nigeria. Containing Ebola in Nigeria : lessons in effective risk and crisis communication / Amiso M. George ; South Africa. Killing in the name of "stolen" jobs : the April 2015 xenophobic attacks in South Africa / Kwamena Kwansah-Aidoo and Ibrahim Saleh -- Asia/Euro-Asia. China and Taiwan. One crisis, two responses : a transboundary analysis of the melamine-tainted milk powder crisis in China and Taiwan / Yi-Hui Christine Huang and Joanne Chen Lyu ; India. They came by boat : the 2008 terrorist attack on Mumbai / Soumitro Sen and Uttaran Dutta ; Indonesia. Power distance, uncertainty avoidance, and Rukun : managing the transboundary haze crisis in Indonesia / Reidinar Juliane Wardoyo and Augustine Pang ; Japan. Culture as crisis communication : Tokyo Electric Power Company and the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant disaster / Cornelius B. Pratt and Ronald Lee Carr ; Kazakhstan. Understanding the Zhanaozen crisis through the intercultural lenses of Eurasianism in Kazakhstan / Elena Kolesova and Dila Beisembayeva ; Malaysia. "Almost without a trace" : missing flight MH370, culture and transboundary crisis communication in the era of social media / Kwamena Kwansah-Aidoo and Amiso M. George ; Singapore. Cultural impediment or reflection of global phenomenon : state of social media crisis preparedness in Singapore / Augustine Pang and Christabel Reena David ; South Korea. Going nuts over nuts : the Korean air ramp return crisis / Jangyul Robert Kim and Kyung-Hyan Yoo -- Middle East. Syria. A battle for hearts and minds : dealing with Syria's intractable humanitarian catastrophe / Kwamena Kwansah-Aidoo and Ibrahim Saleh ; Turkey. "Nothing will ever be the same" : the Borusan case and the socio-cultural dynamics of crisis in Turkey / Ebru Uzunoğlu and Selin Türkel -- Latin America. Brazil. Gone with the mud : learning from the Niterói disaster in Brazil / Regina Coeli da Silveira e Silva and Amiso M. George ; Colombia and Guatemala. When conflict shifts : an analysis of Chiquita brands' transnational crises in Colombia and Guatemala / Juan-Carlos Molleda and Gabriel C. Stephen -- Conclusion. Looking ahead : planning for crisis communication across cultural and transboundary contexts / Amiso M. George and Kwamena Kwansah-Aidoo
A collection of case studies from nonwestern countries that offers an analysis of the significant role culture plays in crisis communication Culture and Crisis Communication presents an examination of how politics, culture, religion, and other social issues affect crisis communication and management in nonwestern countries. From intense human tragedy to the follies of the rich, the chapters examine how companies, organizations, news outlets, health organizations, technical experts, politicians, and local communities communicate in crisis situations. Taking a wider view than a single country s perspective, the text contains a cross-cultural and cross-country approach. In addition, the case studies offer valuable lessons that organizations that wish to operate or are operating in those cultures can adopt in preparing and managing crises. The book highlights recent crisis events such as Syria s civil war, missing Malaysia Flight MH370, andJapan s Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant disaster. Each of the case studies examines how culture impacts communication and responses to crises. Authoritative, insightful, and instructive, this important resource: Analyzes how nonwestern cultures respond to crises Covers therole of culture in crisis communication in recent news events Includes contributions from 18 international authors who provide insight on nonwestern culture and crisis communication Written for communication professionals, academics, and students, Culture and Crisis Communication presents an insightful introduction to the topic of culture and crisis communication and then delves into illustrative case studies that explore intra-cultural and trans-boundary crisis communication.
In recent years, the European continent has witnessed a substantial number of 'transboundary crises' - crises that cross geographical borders and affect multiple policy domains. Nation states find it hard to deal with such crises by themselves. International cooperation, thus, becomes increasingly important, but it is not clear what shape or form that cooperation should take. This article explores the growing role of the European Union (EU) in managing transboundary crises. More specifically, it reflects on the different ways in which the expanding contours of the EU's emerging crisis capacity can be organized. Using three 'performative dimensions' - sense-making, coordination, and legitimacy - the article discusses the possible advantages and disadvantages of a decentralized, network model and compares it with a more centralized, lead-agency model. It concludes that the current network model is a logical outcome of the punctuated and fragmentary process through which EU crisis management capacities have been created. It also notes that the shortcomings of this model may necessitate elements of a lead-agency model. Such 'agencification' of networks for transboundary crisis management may well lead to a hybrid model that is uniquely suited for the peculiar organizational and political creature that the EU is. Adapted from the source document.
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global health crisis estimated to be responsible for 700,000 yearly deaths worldwide. Since the World Health Assembly adopted a Global Action Plan on AMR in 2015, national governments in more than 120 countries have developed national action plans. Notwithstanding this progress, AMR still has limited political commitment, and existing global efforts may be too slow to counter its rise. The article presents five characteristics of the global AMR health crisis that complicate the translation from global attention to effective global initiatives. AMR is (a) a transboundary crisis that suffers from collective action problems, (b) a super wicked and creeping crisis, (c) the product of trying to solve other global threats, (d) suffering from lack of advocacy, and (e) producing distributional and ethical dilemmas. Applying these five different crisis lenses, the article reviews central global initiatives, including the Global Action Plan on AMR and the recommendations of the Interagency Coordination Group on AMR. It argues that the five crisis lenses offer useful entry points for social science analyses that further nuance the existing global governance debate of AMR as a global health crisis.
In Europe, the management of severe, cross-border crises is shared increasingly among actors and institutions at local, national, and supranational governance levels. The supranational political system of the European Union (EU) allows for substantial delegation of collective powers for public policymaking—and that delegation extends to crisis-management-related policies. Those policies and the crisis management "capacities" they lead to, however, are diverse and fragmented. They span the EU's institutions, cover multiple sectors, and reflect different degrees of EU legal competence. The European Commission and its agencies house and manage most crisis-related policies, while the Council of Ministers of the European Union has its own capacities and provides a degree of political direction. EU agencies, and the European External Action Service (since 2010), contain yet more crisis-management-related capacities. These developments have grown mainly through crisis-driven expansion, albeit in an incremental and dispersed way, followed by consolidation. Scholars from the fields of international relations, public administration, and security studies have been slow to identify these developments. New research is needed on the subtle dynamics driving policy growth, the effectiveness and efficiency of these arrangements, and the comparative dimension with other regional crisis management systems in the world.