Maintains that the biotechnology revolution will forever change the structure of global production. Agronomists are being replaced by molecular biologists & control over the raw materials of biotechnology is becoming a divisive international issue. Information obtained from interviews with four agricultural researchers & questionnaires completed by 237 agricultural biotechnologists in US universities reveals important shifts in ranking the criteria for research, indicating that the everyday choices of agricultural scientists will ultimately determine the impact of biotechnology on developing countries. More than half of all 1990s US doctorates in the agricultural sciences were awarded to foreign students, mostly from developing nations. The impact of the distancing between researcher & farmer is discussed, along with the increasing specialization of agricultural scientists, & the need for sophisticated laboratories to enable graduates to utilize their skills. Scientists produced by US universities are not focused on the rural poor, multidisciplinary studies, or on-site fieldwork, which puts their agendas at odds with the needs of small-scale farmers. Suggestions are made for ways to bridge the chasm. J. Lindroth
Since World War II national trade union organizations have become involved in the internal political affairs of other countries, usually through the labor organizations in these countries. Soviet trade unions, a precursor and model in this respect, supported Soviet foreign policy through their international trade union contacts. United States unions played an important role in promoting the Marshall Plan, winning trade union support for it in Western Europe, and countering the opposition of communist-oriented trade unions in France and Italy. British and French unions were active in the colonial territories of their countries and often continued their influence after these territories achieved independence. United States unions have been active in Latin America and in the less developed areas of the Caribbean and Africa.
Examines the global trend toward increased involvement by nongovernmental agencies & private parties that have enriched the mix of actors operating at all levels of interstate & intersociety relations in the Caribbean. It is posited that there are new relations in the political, economic, gender, academic, & environmental areas. The persistence of the linguistic, ethnocultural, & political barriers that have historically kept the Caribbean balkanized are considered. Adapted from the source document.
The global trend toward increased involvement by non-governmental agencies and private parties has enriched the mix of actors operating at all levels of interstate and intersociety relations in the Caribbean. While many of these new relations persist in the traditional ties with the former colonial metropolises, there is evidence of new relations in the political, economic, gender, academic, and environmental areas. Even as this article examines many of these transnational relationships, it is not sanguine about the disappearance any time soon of the linguistic, ethnocultural, and political barriers that have historically kept the Caribbean balkanized.