The adoption of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) by the UN General Assembly in 2015 represents the latest attempt by the international community to live up to the challenges of a planet that is out of control. Sustainable Development Goal 11 envisages inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable cities around the world by the year 2030. This globally agreed vision is part of a trend in international policy toward good urban governance, and now awaits implementation. Fourteen original contributions collectively examine how this global vision has been developed on a conceptual level, how it plays out in various areas of (global) urban governance and how it is implemented in varying local contexts. The overarching hypothesis presented herein is that SDG 11 proves that local governance is recognised as an autonomous yet interrelated part of the global pursuit of sustainable development. The volume analyses three core questions: How have the normative ideals set forth in SDG 11 been developed? What are the meanings of the four sub-goals of SDG 11 and how do these relate to each other? What does SDG 11 imply for urban law and governance in the domestic context and how are local processes of urban governance internationalised? The Globalisation of Urban Governance makes an important scholarly contribution by linking the narrative on globalisation of good urban governance in various social sciences with legal discourse. It considers global governance and connects the existing debate about cities and their place in global governance with some of the most pertinent questions that lawyers face today.
Urban governance in general & partnerships in particular are commonly legitimized as being more efficient than traditional forms of government, whereas their relationship to democracy is only mentioned in passing or even neglected. In most of the literature, a number of efficiency-related arguments in favor of the partnership approach are presented, although its alleged capacity to create synergetic effects for the partners normally ranks number one. Of course it is an empirical question, whether a partnership is efficient or not, but the point is that the efficiency rhetoric is strong enough to legitimize the creation of partnerships anyhow. Partnerships are more or less ascribed the function to solve any governance problem. Taking its point of departure in a theoretical discussion of partnerships & their role in urban governance, & using illustrations taken from recent empirical studies, the main aim of the paper is to develop a research strategy for crossnational/crosscountry research on partnerships & urban governance. The paper concludes by discussing some policy implications of the growing role of partnerships in urban governance, highlighting their so far neglected relationship to democracy. 32 References. Adapted from the source document.
Die Stadtentwicklungspolitik in Deutschland formuliert aufgrund veränderter Rahmenbedingungen wie dem demografischen Wandel, der Globalisierung der Wirtschaftsbeziehungen oder auch veränderter öffentlicher Finanzen, die normative Idee, Stadtquartiere durch eine intensivere Beteiligung privater Akteure zu entwickeln. Bisherige Versuche der Städtebauförderung die Einbindung privater Kleineigentümer in quartiersbezogene Handlungsansätze zu stimulieren zeigen, dass dies bislang nur unzureichend gelingt. Auf rationalen Handlungslogiken basierende Theorien sprechen im Zusammenhang der privaten Erstellung öffentlicher Güter sogar von „Marktversagen“. Und trotzdem existieren bereits erste Eigentümerstandortgemeinschaften (ESG) in Deutschland. Was ermöglichte dieses private Engagement? Angesichts fehlender empirischer Daten über freiwilliges kollektives Handeln privater Eigentümer in der Quartiers-entwicklung, geht die vorliegende Dissertation der Frage nach, welche Faktoren die Entstehung von ESG bestimmen und die institutionelle Struktur von ESG charakterisieren. Zur Beantwortung der Forschungsfrage wurde ein vergleichendes Fallstudiendesign mit ESG in Dortmund, Essen und Görlitz gewählt. Die Ergebnisse der Dissertation verdeutlichen, dass ESG als abhängige Variable sowohl durch die individuellen Interessen bzw. Handlungsstrategien der Immobilieneigentümer bei der Bewirtschaftung ihrer Immobilien, als auch durch den Steuerungsanspruch staatlicher Akteure in der Quartiersentwicklung bestimmt werden. Die Autorin leitet die individuellen und kollektiven Handlungsstrategien der Akteure her und setzt sich mit der individuellen Motivation zum Handeln auseinander. Zusätzlich werden grundlegende institutionelle Merkmale von ESG und ihre Eigenheit als Urban Governance-Ansatz diskutiert. Aus den als Hypothesen formulierten Ergebnissen werden abschließend Schlussfolgerungen für die Praxis sowie der weitere Forschungsbedarf abgeleitet. ; This PhD thesis deals with a concept of urban development which is at present in a pilot phase in Germany, the Local Property Owner Partnership (LoPOP). These are characterized by a voluntary collective development of the quarter at the initiative of the property owners. The demographic, economic and social structures lead to spatially differentiated changes which induce complex problems in urban development. Among others, this may result in a notable increase of vacant flats, an increasing demand for low-barrier flats or in investment backlogs of the public infrastructure. A large part of the up-coming investment tasks concerns private property and requires action by private property owners, e.g. in the development of living space. Attempts to activate proprietors via urban development funding have shown minor success up to now. Current urban development policy formulates the idea to reach a positive development of structurally weak quarters by a more intensified participation of private actors in collective approaches. In view of the missing of empirical data on voluntary action by private proprietors in the urban development, the PhD thesis investigates which factors determine the establishment of Local Property Owner Partnerships and characterize their institutional structure. Due to the small number of existing LoPOPs in Germany as well as to the limited number of scientific publications dealing with this subject, a comparative case study design was chosen. Fifty-six partially structured interviews were held in three heterogeneously distinctive LoPOPs in Dortmund, Essen and Görlitz. The transcribed interview data were processed by means of reconstructive content analyses and the results were formulated as hypotheses. The results of the thesis show that the subject of examination, LoPOPs, can be discussed with respect to actor-related and institutional theories as well as governance approaches. LoPOPs are defined as a dependent variable with respect to the individual interests and strategies of action of the property owners concerning their real estate management as well as to the governance requirements of state actors concerning the development of the quarter. Thereby, it has become apparent that one should make a distinction between the strategies of action of the state and the private actors. Both groups show three basic types of action strategies which have constructional and social as well as structural impacts on the quarter. The individual strategies of action of the proprietors are invest, wait and exit. With regard to the quarter, the municipal actors have the strategies develop, wait or retract at their disposal. Moreover, the data analyses discovered a path dependency between the individual management strategies of the proprietors and their action in the collective situation. The actors who are focusing on wait or on exit play the role of free riders. With regard to the proprietors who are willing to invest, three collective strategies of action may be noted: wait, individual effort and cooperation. As a central motive for choosing the collective strategy of action cooperation and, thus for commitment to participating in the LoPOP, the reduction of uncertainty could be identified. According to this, the preparedness for cooperation depends on the intensity of uncertainty in the management of the property and, thus, also on the degree of being affected by the above mentioned structural change. Whether the LoPOP is a suitable tool for the elimination of this uncertainty is closely connected with its institutional structure. LoPOPs are - taking into account the specific constellation of actors - characterized by high transaction costs, due to the low legal and social possibilities for sanctions. Therefore, a clear value of the projects and the common standards of the actors are all the more necessary for success. LoPOPs deal with the development of quarters and produce, as a private initiative, also public goods. This establishes the public interest in their development. The results of the thesis show that, due to the constellation of actors, interests and themes in voluntary LoPOPs, the state actors concentrate on the interaction form of the horizontal coordination. Therefore, LoPOPs can be referred to as a form of Urban Governance. Moreover, it becomes obvious that, when the mission statement of a voluntary, informal and private network of small proprietors shall be realised, on the one hand free riders cannot be avoided, on the other hand the public authorities are indispensable providing consulting and financial support. In comparison with traditional approaches of urban development funding, LoPOPs, as collective development approaches, need an intensive involvement of local actors in addition to the thematic debate during their preparation. The thesis terminates with conclusions for practice as well as needs for further research drawn from the generated hypotheses. The needs for further research refer inter alia to the evaluation of effects of the LoPOPs; the analysis of learning processes among the groups of actors in the development process and in the verification of the generated hypotheses in this work.
"This broad ranging new text analyses the emerging shape of urban politics in the twenty-first century. The author identifies 4 main "models" of urban governance--"management," "Corporatist." "Pro-Growth" and "Welfare"--and assesses their different implications for the major issues, interests and problems in the contemporary urban arena"--
Rapid population growth, urbanization, and the growing challenges faced by the urban poor require redefining the paradigm for public health interventions in the 21st century, creating new approaches that take urban determinants of health into consideration. The widening disparity between the urban poor and the urban rich further exacerbates health inequities. Existing tools for global governance of urban health risks fall short, particularly in the lack of formal mechanisms to strengthen collaboration and communication among national and municipal agencies and between their local and international non-governmental partners. There is also a clear disconnect between governance strategies crafted at the international level and implementation on the ground. The challenge is to find common ground for global goods and municipal needs, and to craft innovative and dynamic policy solutions that can benefit some of the poorest citizens of the global urban network.