Gambling with violence (2019)

state outsourcing of war in Pakistan and India

in: Modern South Asia

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'Gambling with Violence' tackles a global problem that is particularly consequential for Pakistan and India: state outsourcing of violence to ordinary civilians, criminals, and ex-insurgents. Drawing on over 200 interviews, archival research, and fieldwork conducted in Islamabad, Srinagar, New Delhi, Dhaka, Diyarbakir, Ankara, Moscow, London, and Washington, D.C., this text introduces the 'balance-of-interests' thesis to deepen our understanding of state-nonstate alliances in civil war.