A PhD candidate in biological sciences, who is also pursuing a graduate certificate in women's studies, describes male-centered paradigms in the study of fish coloration that overlook coloration displays in females. As a result, many traits common to both sexes are labeled "male traits," thereby obscuring the actual degree of sexual variation. It is argued that the traditionally male-dominated field of animal behavior has produced many theories that fail to consider female evolution. However, recent work by the growing number of women in the field, as well as some astute male scientists, has focused more on androcentric research that reflects larger cultural shifts in gender roles. Personal experiences as a woman in a male-dominated field are related, along with how childhood socialization served to restrict certain aspirations, & how human gender roles inhibit conceptions of male & female animals. A discussion of the need to challenge science's gender-based representations contends that the insights & methodologies of feminist theory must be applied in order to develop a more flexible view of animal nature. 17 References. J. Lindroth
This book details the results of the authors' research using laboratory animals to investigate individual choice theory in economics-consumer-demand and labour supply behaviour and choice under uncertainty. The use of laboratory animals provides the opportunity to conduct controlled experiments involving precise and demanding tests of economic theory with rewards and punishments of real consequence. Economic models are compared to psychological and biological choice models along with the results of experiments testing between these competing explanations. Results of animal experiments are used to address questions of social policy importance
Front Cover -- Mixed-Species Groups of Animals -- Mixed-Species Groups of Animals: Behavior, Community Structure, -- Copyright -- Contents -- Preface -- 1 - Introduction -- 1.1 WHAT IS A MIXED-SPECIES GROUP? DEFINING THE SCOPE OF THE BOOK -- 1.2 HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE ON RESEARCH ON MIXED-SPECIES GROUPS -- 2 - A Diversity of Mixed-Species Associations -- 2.1 CLASSIFYING MIXED-SPECIES ASSOCIATIONS -- 2.2 INTERACTIONS BETWEEN SPECIES WITHOUT ASSOCIATION -- 2.3 ASSOCIATION OF SPECIES DESPITE LACK OF INTERACTION -- 2.3.1 Aggregations in Habitat Patches -- 2.3.2 Aggregations Around a Resource -- 2.3.3 Aggregations Influenced by Predation -- 2.3.4 Aggregations During Migration -- 2.4 STATIONARY ASSOCIATIONS CENTERED AROUND SPECIES INTERACTIONS -- 2.4.1 Associations Based on a Protective Species -- 2.4.2 Mixed-Species Colonies or Roosts -- 2.4.3 Cleaning Mutualisms -- 2.5 CONCLUSIONS -- 3 - Moving Mixed-Species Groups in Different Taxa -- 3.1 COMPARING MOVING MIXED-SPECIES GROUPS -- 3.2 INVERTEBRATES -- 3.3 FISH AND AQUATIC AMPHIBIANS -- 3.3.1 Saltwater Fish -- 3.3.2 Freshwater Fish and Aquatic Amphibians -- 3.4 MAMMALS -- 3.4.1 Cetaceans -- 3.4.2 Ungulates -- 3.4.3 Primates -- 3.5 BIRDS -- 3.5.1 Seabirds -- 3.5.2 Shorebirds -- 3.5.3 Waterfowl -- 3.5.4 Waders -- 3.5.5 Grassland Birds -- 3.5.6 Forest Birds -- 3.6 MSGS THAT INCLUDE MULTIPLE TAXA AND WHERE ONE SPECIES MAKES FOOD MORE ACCESSIBLE TO OTHERS -- 3.6.1 Associations Based on One Species Increasing Prey Accessibility -- 3.6.2 Cooperative Hunting -- 3.6.3 Mutualisms in Which Increased Foraging Is Traded for Vigilance -- 3.7 CONCLUSIONS -- 4 - Adaptive Implications of Mixed-Species Grouping: Foraging, Physical, and Reproductive Factors -- 4.1 DIFFERENT TYPES OF MIXED-SPECIES GROUPS IN TERMS OF ADAPTATION -- 4.2 SOME POTENTIAL FORAGING BENEFITS OF (MIXED-SPECIES) GROUPING
Attitudes towards various manifestations of human sexual behavior remain one of the actual legal and medical problems for both society and specialists. About forty years ago medical and moral understanding of the norm of sexual behavior was universal and unambiguous, but this situation has changed significantly over the past decades. In some societes, the principle of the so-called social homonormativity – the understanding of same-sex sexual behavior and self-identification as a form of medical and moral norms – has been institutionalized. In societies in which the understanding of the norm of sexual behavior is not based on homonormativity, some political movements and organizations actively pursue their goals to such a change in medical, moral and legal principles, which consolidates any forms of social activity based on homonormativity. One of the claims used by these movements is the assertion that "homosexuality is a kind of norm for humans, because it is common among more than 1500 species of animals". The pitfall with this statement is that it is based on the anthropomorphic interpretation of animal behavior, as well as on the selective transfer of the phenomena of the animal world to human life. In this review article, the authors consistently disprove all aspects of the application of the claim that "homosexual behavior is prevalent in the animal kingdom" in a discussion on the topic of same-sex human behavior. Interpretation of the observed cases of same-sex behavior in animals to assess any medical, moral or legal normativity of the same-sex behavior in human beings is biased, it avoids other forms of non-productive behavior of animals, which, within an anthropomorphic interpretation, can be used as phenomena that justify human incest, child abuse or bestiality.
Purpose The purpose of this paper is return to some findings and approaches typical of behavioral sciences and evolutionary anthropology that will allow us to link the process of self-domestication that can be seen in our evolutionary past, the primate tendency to enter into conflicts through patterns of signal exchange rather than direct aggressions, and the development of the persuasive dimension of language, with the possible evolutionary origin of both cultural violence and structural violence.
Design/methodology/approach The approach has been, at all times, multidisciplinary insofar as it has sought to elucidate how the inquiries made from the behavioral sciences can help to understand human violence.
Findings What was found is the possibility of understanding conflicts as a mechanism of evolutionary pressure that has been involved not only in social restructuring but also in the evolutionary origin of the human being.
Research limitations/implications More empirical evidence should be found in this regard.
Originality/value This study is a multidisciplinary approach that seeks to understand both the phenomenon of violence and peace from an evolutionary perspective.
The relations linking aggressive to soc behavior are particularly strong when one considers the release & the control of aggressive behavior. The stimuli which provoke aggressive behavior nearly always come from outside; they are connected with the presence of a congener. One may assume that the stimuli & perceptions which enter into individual recognition have some connection with the triggering of aggressive. behavior ior. In mammals & esp in rodents, the role of olfactive cues has been stressed in a great many studies. In M mice, a great deal of individual recognition seems to depend on scent signals originating either in the genito-urinary region or in the urinary tract. The release of aggressive conducts is linked to similar olfactive cues: anosmia provokes a total disappearance of aggression in M mice. The role of the soc environment in the control of aggressive behavior can be studied by changing the density of pop. In natural conditions, the soc life tends to reduce aggressiveness; much animal behavior is directed towards developing exchange of information to reduce intra-specific fightings. But when M mice, for example, are isolated, their aggressiveness is increased; this phenomenon has been found in other animals & in man. In the same way, overcrowding increases aggressiveness in animals. Psychol'ts & physiologists have studied some of the internal changes involved by modification of the soc environment. In rodents, olfactive cues are also involved in these phenomena. AA.
Melhorar o desempenho reprodutivo é importante para aumentar a lucratividade das propriedades. Assim, nós avaliamos a contagem de folículos antrais (CFA), o escore de condição corporal (ECC), o peso vivo e o comportamento animal sobre à taxa de concepção de vacas Brahman submetidas à inseminação artificial em tempo-fixo (IATF). Vacas (n=122) receberam um protocolo convencional de IATF de três manejos (D0, 8 e 10) a base de estrógeno e progesterona, além do monitoramento da expressão de estro antes da inseminação. O ECC e o comportamento animal foram avaliados em todos os dias do protocolo, o peso foi mensurado no D0 e no diagnóstico de gestação (D40) e a CFA no D0. Para análise, estabeleceu-se os grupos de CFA (baixa, intermediária e alta), do comportamento (calma, inquieta e agitada), do peso (ganhando, mantendo e perdendo) e do ECC (ganhando, mantendo e perdendo). A taxa de concepção geral foi de 50%, e não esteve associada (p>0,05) a classificação da CFA (baixa/52,6%, intermediária/50,9% e alta/45,4%), do peso (ganhando/43,0%, mantendo/54,7% e perdendo/47,1%), do ECC (ganhando/44,0%, mantendo/54,3% e perdendo/37,5%) e do comportamento (calma/43,0%, inquieta/54,7% e agitada/47,1%). No entanto, a baixa CFA apresentou maior (p=0,05) proporção de animais com alta intensidade de estro (94,7%) e foi observado maior escore de reatividade (p=0,001) no primeiro dia de manejo da IATF em relação aos outros dias. Vacas com baixa CFA resultaram em maior proporção de expressão de estro e o primeiro dia de manejo da IATF determinou uma maior reatividade animal em relação aos outros dias do protocolo.
Improving reproductive performance is important to increase farm profitability. The relationship of antral follicle count (AFC), body condition score (BCS), weight, and animal behavior on the conception rate in cows submitted to timed artificial insemination (TAI). Cows (n=122) received a conventional TAI protocol of three managements (D0, 8, and 10) based on estrogen and progesterone, in addition to monitoring estrus expression before insemination. The BCS and behavior score were assessed every day of the TAI protocol. Weight was measured at D0 and in the pregnancy diagnosis (D40), and AFC was determined at D0. For analysis, the groups were established according to AFC (low, intermediate, and high), behavior animal (calm, restless, and agitated), weight variation (gaining, maintaining, and losing), and BCS variation (gaining, maintaining, and losing). The overall conception rate was 50%, and it was not associated with (P>0.05) the AFC classification (low/52.6%, intermediate/50.9%, and high/45.4%), weight variations (gaining/43.0%, maintaining/54.7%, and losing/47.1%), BCS variations (gaining/44.0%, maintaining/54.3%, and losing/37.5%) and animal behavior (calm/43.0%, restless/54.7%, and agitated/47.1%). However, the low AFC showed a higher (P=0.05) proportion of animals with high intensity of estrus expression (94.7%). In addition, a higher score for animal reactivity (P=0.001) was noted on the first day of the management of TAI protocol than to the other days of the hormonal protocol. The low AFC resulted in a higher proportion of cows with high estrus expression and the management practices for TAI determined a greater animals reactivity at the beginning of the breeding program.
Keywords: Body Condition. Artificial Insemination. Reproductive Performance. Live Weight.