The purpose of this paper is to investigate the correlation of economic development and pollutants in Brazil from 1960 to 2008. This investigation is conducted by scrutinizing and testing the much contested Environmental Kuznet Curve (EKC); an economic theory relating income to environmental degradation by an inverted U-shape. Empirical tests of Carbon dioxide (CO2) per capita and income (GDP per capita) provided us with the conclusion that there is a strongly positive correlation between these variables. The observed relationship tells us that as income increases, CO2 emissions increase as well, although at a slightly decreasing scale. Thus, the expected inverted U-shape is not observed in Brazil, findings that are in line with previous research. Further, the empirical tests tell us that Brazil is approaching a potential turning point of an EKC. The results indicate that although Brazil may have succeeded in some aspects of approaching a Sustainable Development, there are still issues for improvement.
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The phrase “economic development” generally refers not only to economic growth, but to changes in the ways in which goods and services are produced in a country as well as improvements in inhabitants’ quality of life. Theories of economic development attempt to explain the social, political, and economic processes that countries go through as they transition from being what are known as “Less Developed Countries” (LDCs) to being “Developed Countries” (DCs). In this course, the student will discover how various theories explain development success and failure in the real world. This free course may be completed online at any time. See course site for detailed overview and learning outcomes. (Economics 304)
"Economic Development, Twelfth Edition, presents the latest thinking in economic development with the clear and comprehensive approach that has been so well received in both the developed and developing worlds. The pace and scope of economic development continues its rapid, uneven, and sometimes unexpected evolution. This text explains the unprecedented progress that has been made in many parts of the developing world but fully confronts the enormous problems and challenges that remain to be addressed in the years ahead. The text shows the wide diversity across the developing world and the differing positions in the global economy that are held by developing countries. The principles of development economics are key to understanding how we got to where we are, how great progress has been made in recent years, and why many development problems remain so difficult to solve. The principles of development economics are also key to the design of successful economic development policy and programs as we look ahead. The field of economic development is versatile and has much to contribute regarding these differing scenarios. Thus, the text also underlines common features that are exhibited by a majority of developing nations, using the insights of the study of economic development. The few countries that have essentially completed the transformation to become developed economies, such as South Korea, are also examined as potential models for other developing countries to follow. Both theory and empirical analysis in development economics have made major strides, and the Twelfth Edition brings these ideas and findings to students. Legitimate controversies are actively debated in development economics, and so the text presents contending theories and interpretations of evidence, with three goals. The first goal is to ensure that students understand real conditions and institutions across the developing world. The second is to help students develop analytic skills while broadening their perspectives of the wide scope of the field. The third is to provide students with the resources to draw independent conclusions as they confront development problems, their sometimes ambiguous evidence, and real-life development policy choices-ultimately, to play an informed role in the struggle for economic development and ending extreme poverty."
For courses on economic development A complete, balanced introduction to the theory, issues, and latest research. Economic Development,Twelfth Edition-the leading textbook in this field-provides students with a complete and balanced introduction to the requisite theory, driving policy issues, and latest research. Todaro and Smith take a policy-oriented approach, presenting economic theory in the context of critical policy debates and country-specific case studies so you can see how theory relates to the problems and prospects of developing countries. Teaching and Learning Experiences This program presents a better teaching and learning experience-for you and your students. *Use the text`s Hallmark Approach to presenting engaging information: Shaped by the authors` personalities, this approach is backed up with extensive research and travel to provide the best data possible.*Teach with strong pedagogy tools: The text reinforces central key concepts by presenting a clear learning path for students. *Give students a real-world global perspective: Students are able togain a unique perspective about world issues from two authors who strive to address different sides to problems.
Principles and concepts -- Economics, institutions, and development -- Comparative economic development -- Classic theories of economic growth and development -- Contemporary models of development and underdevelopment -- Problems and policies : domestic -- Poverty, inequality, and development -- Population growth and economic development : causes, consequences, and controversies -- Urbanization and rural-urban migration : theory and policy -- Human capital : education and health in economic development -- Agricultural transformation and rural development -- The environment and development -- Development policymaking and the roles of market, state, and civil society -- Problems and policies : international and macro -- International trade theory and development strategy -- Balance of payments, developing-country debt, and the macroeconomic stabilization controversy -- Foreign finance, investment, and aid : controversies and opportunities -- Finance and fiscal policy for development