This dissertation contributes to several fields of international macroeconomics. Chapter 2 presents a new dataset and new evidence on the invoicing pattern in international trade for a large panel of countries. It goes into detail explaining the motivation to set prices in different currencies, with a special focus on the role of the euro as invoicing currency. Chapters 3 and 4 of this study focus on the impact of oil prices on oil-exporting countries, a topic which has received far less attention than the impact on industrial countries. Chapter 3 analyses the import behaviour of oil exporting countries and its potential role in the resolution of global current account imbalances. Chapter 4 analyses the effect of oil price changes on the economy of the world’s largest oil exporting country, Russia. Chapter 5 looks at the international transmission of monetary policy shocks, paying particular attention to the implications of different exchange rate regimes.
In this paper, the implicit and explicit conceptualizations of international organizations found in the three major theories of international relations are outlined and compared. It turns out that in a neorealist framework, international organizations can be explained; however, they exhibit no autonomy and cannot therefore be conceptualized as a corporate actor. Principally, the same applies to rational choice institutionalism, although limited autonomy is conceivable. Both theories are reductionist in the sense that they do not allow a corporate actor beyond the nation-state. International organizations are at best instruments of state interests. Solely social constructivist theories allow a conceptualization of international organizations as partly autonomous corporate actors. The reason for this conceptual openness lies in its ontology that includes ideational factors such as knowledge and ideas. The concept of emergence gives the core explanation for international organization autonomy: identities and interests of states and international organizations constitute each other mutually. This is specified by referring to the generation of new knowledge within international organizations as the key feature which accounts for feedbacks to the member-states of international organizations. This power of international organizations to alter perceptions and identities of their own 'founding fathers' makes them more than state instruments. International organizations thereby gain autonomy, which justifies conceiving of them as high-order corporate actors in international relations.
This article documents the rise of nonconsensual international lawmaking and analyzes its consequences for the treaty design, treaty participation, and treaty adherence decisions of nation states. Grounding treaties upon the formal consent of states has numerous advantages for a decentralized and largely anarchic international legal system that suffers from a pervasive “compliance deficit.” But consent also has real costs, including the inability to ensure that all nations affected by transborder problems join treaties that seek to resolve those problems. This “participation deficit” helps explain why some international rules bind countries without their acceptance or approval. Such rules have wide applicability. But they can also increase sovereignty costs, exacerbating the compliance deficit. Nonconsensual international lawmaking thus appears to create an insoluble tradeoff between increasing participation and decreasing compliance. This article explains that such a tradeoff is not inevitable. Drawing on recent examples from multilateral efforts to prevent transnational terrorism, preserve the global environment, and protect human rights, the article demonstrates that the game-theoretic structure of certain cooperation problems, together with their institutional and political context, create self-enforcing equilibria in which compliance is a dominant strategy. In these situations, nonconsensual lawmaking reduces both the participation and the compliance deficits. In other issue areas, by contrast, problem structure and context do not affect the tradeoff between the two deficits, and the incentive to defect remains unaltered. Analyzing the differences among these issue areas helps to identify the conditions under which nonconsensual lawmaking increases the welfare of all states.
Bildungssysteme sind integrale Subsysteme nationaler Innovationssysteme. Die Generierung, Anwendung und Diffusion von neuem Wissen und die Umsetzung von Wissen in neue Produkte und Prozesse stellt durch die zunehmende technologische Komplexität wachsende Bildungsanforderungen an die im Innovationsprozess beteiligten Akteure. Vor diesem Hintergrund behandelt der Beitrag zunächst die Frage, welche Bedeutung Bildung für Innovation und Wachstum hat. Anschließend wird in einem internationalen Vergleich untersucht, inwieweit die Bildungssysteme Deutschlands und weiterer OECD-Länder den Anforderungen gerecht werden. Für die verschiedenen Bildungsbereiche (obere sekundäre, tertiäre Bildung und Weiterbildung) werden der Bildungsstand, die Bildungsbeteiligung sowie die Bildungsstrukturen analysiert. Ferner wird gezeigt, vor welchen Herausforderungen viele Länder und insbesondere Deutschland durch den demografischen Wandel stehen. Abschließend wird kurz dargelegt, welche Bildungsstrategien andere Länder in den letzten Jahren entwickelt und umgesetzt haben, damit ihre Bildungssysteme den Notwendigkeiten einer Wissensgesellschaft gerecht werden. ; Education systems are integral subsystems of national innovation systems. Due to the increasing technological complexity the generation, application and diffusion of new knowledge and the transformation of knowledge into new products and processes imply increasing educational requirements to the agents who are involved in innovation processes. With respect to this background, first, this article considers the impact of education on innovation and economic growth. Afterwards, in an international comparison it is analyzed to what extent the education system in Germany and other OECD countries meet the requirements. For the different kinds of education (upper secondary education, tertiary education and continuing training) educational attainment, enrolment rates and educational structures are analyzed. Furthermore, it will be shown, which challenges many countries and especially Germany are confronted with by the demographic change. Finally, it will briefly reviewed, which education strategies were developed and implemented by other countries in order to meet the requirements of a knowledge society.
From the meteoric rise of Japan in the 1970s and the 1980s to the rapid industrialization of the four East Asian “Tiger ” economies and the recent ascendance of emerging giants such as China, the rise of East Asian economies poses as a challenging analytical problem for the field of international political economy. Does this general rise of East Asia follow the necessary pathways of advanced industrialized economies in North America and Western Europe? If so, the rise of East Asia can simply be explained by existing IPE theories. Otherwise, how might the complex unfolding of political economic forces in these East Asian economies inform us something important about existing IPE theories and frameworks? In 2 this chapter, I seek to deal with this analytical challenge by using the diverse development trajectories in East Asian economies to inform the study of IPE. In particular, I argue that the rise of East Asia in the international political economy can provide a fertile research ground for us to “theorize back ” at the dominant discourses in the study of IPE.
Abstract. In this chapter, I selectively review academic literature on the causes and consequences of emigration from developing countries. My aim is to identify facts about international migration that are relevant to those concerned about why labor moves between countries and how these movements affect sending-country economies. Empirical work on global labor flows is still in an early state. As is often the case, the literature provides incomplete answers to some of the most urgent questions. Nevertheless, recent work yields a number of robust results and is helpful for identifying where future research should be directed.
Since the mid-1990s, most of the international community has recognised the de-stabilising effect on failed and weak states of the illicit transfer, accumulation and misuse of small arms and light weapons. They are said to fuel and prolong conflicts; obstruct relief operations; undermine peace initiatives; exacerbate human rights abuses; hinder post-conflict development and security and are perceived as ‘fostering a culture of violence’. As a consequence, the United Nations (UN), regional governmental institutions, national governments together with non-governmental organisations (NGOs) have proposed and developed various initiatives to curb the illicit trade and misuse of these weapons (UNDDA 2006). This paper considers the post-Cold War diffusion and proliferation of small arms, their attractiveness for violent non-state actors, some aspects of the arms trade and their impact on intra-state and cross-border conflicts. The study also focuses principally on the development of initiatives at UN level including the adoption of the Programme of Action (PoA) at a 2001 UN conference and the UN resolution to develop in 2008 an International Arms Treaty. Regional measures are also outlined together with the role of civil society in the global control movement. Finally, obstacles to global action are discussed including opposition from the international pro-gun lobby and the major weapons producing states.
Sport wird einerseits wie jede andere Tätigkeit in der Gesellschaft mit öffentlichen Abgabelasten beschwert, andererseits im Vergleich zu ähnlichen Tätigkeiten steuerlich geschont und sogar öffentlich unterstützt. Diese Ambivalenz der steuerlichen Behandlung des Sports hat wiederholt Fragen nach der öffentlichen Finanzierung des Sportes aufgeworfen: Inwieweit sind Leistungen der öffentlichen Hände gerechtfertigt, inwieweit lösen Sportveranstaltungen den Tatbestand der Besteuerung aus? Dieser von Hans-Peter Büch, Wolfgang Maennig und Hans-Jürgen Schulke herausgegebene Band versucht, unter dem Motto „Science meets Practice“ ausgewählte Fragestellungen zu dieser Problematik aus wissenschaftlicher und sportpolitischer Sicht zu beantworten.
We develop a generalized approach to the treatment of household inequality aspects of social welfare in general equilibrium models of trade. We follow a dual approach, highlighting how general equilibrium distributional aspects of social welfare related to import protection may be examined alongside corresponding eciency aspects. We work with a social welfare function that is explicitly separable between mean income and income dispersion. Our results compliment the set of standard inequality results in trade theory that are focused strictly on functional rather than household inequality. As an application of the theoretical framework, we then examine the direct impact of inequality on a government's objective function. We nd that equity consider- ations may serve to counter lobbying interests in both capital-rich and capital-poor countries, though with an opposite marginal impact on the nal policy outcome. We also identify a new theoretical basis for potential protectionist bias on the part of welfare maximizing governments in capital-rich countries in the Heckscher-Ohlin model. Our dual framework also offers a possible empirical framework for decomposition of policy-induced price changes into household inequality for a broad class of models.
For Member States of the European Union, participation in this supranational organization has increased the number of diffi culties in the international arena. Occasionally, the expanding legislative activity of the European institutions reaches out beyond the borders of the European legal system and incidentally affects the EU Member States ’ autonomous relations with third parties. Consequently the EU and its members, often with success, seek third parties ’ consent to exceptional treatment. Because of their number and significance, such derogations have inspired this article to inquire into their expansion and legal status under international law. Even though the EU-related exceptions have not created an international customary rule, the article observes that European integration shapes international rules in diverse fi elds and adjusts them to its needs. Since European integration is designed to administerand regulate an increasing number of issues, the autonomous international obligations of the EU Member States may become an obstacle. Because the European Union is likely to continue using special treatment in the future, it is important to assess how far the supranational exception can go in order to accommodate all interests at stake.
This is the fourth of a series of papers that are being written as part of a larger project to estimate a small quarterly Global Projection Model (GPM). The GPM project is designed to improve the toolkit to which economists have access for studying both own-country and cross-country linkages. In this paper, we add Latin American economies to a previously estimated small quarterly projection model of the US, euro area, and Japanese economies. The model is estimated with Bayesian techniques, which provide a very e ¢ cient way of imposing restrictions to produce both plausible dynamics and sensible forecasting properties.
Tout d'abord envisagées et créées pour régler les différents entre Etats, les institutions du Droit pénal international s'intéressent désormais aux victimes de violations du Droit international humanitaire. Près d'un demi-siècle après les Tribunaux militaires internationaux chargés de régler les contentieux liés à la Seconde guerre mondiale, le Droit pénal international s'est doté d'outils dont l'évolution permet désormais aux victimes de crimes de droit international humanitaire d'être visible et représentées sur la scène pénale internationale.
This paper investigates the implications for international markets of the existence of retailers/wholesalers with market power. Two main results are shown. First, in the presence of buyer power trade liberalization may lead to retail market concentration. Due to this concentration retail prices may be higher and welfare may be lower in free trade than in autarky, thus reversing the standard effects of trade liberalization. Second, the pro-competitive effects of trade liberalization are weaker under buyer power than under seller power.
Along with international trade and foreign direct investment (FDI), international migration is an important channel for the transmission of technology and knowledge. However, the direction and scale of technology flows that result from international migration are less clear than for FDI and trade. Remittances to developing countries have grown steadily in recent years, reaching an estimated $240 billion in 2007, and are now larger than FDI and equity inflows in many countries, especially small, low-income countries. Remittances can support the diffusion of technology by reducing the credit constraints of receiving households and encouraging investment and entrepreneurship. Remittance flows have also contributed to the extension of banking services (often by using innovative technologies), including microfinance, to previously unserved, often rural sectors.