LGBT rights have expanded unevenly across Latin America and the Caribbean. Recent scholarship has been able to explain some of the reasons for this unevenness. But new and old questions remain unaddressed. This article suggests areas for further research. Resumen: Los derechos LGBT en la política de América Latina y el Caribe: Agendas para la investigación Los derechos LGBT han proliferado en América Latina y el Caribe de modo disparejo. Varios estudios académicos recientes han logrado explicar las razones de dicho crecimiento disparejo. Sin embargo, existen todavía preguntas sin responder al igual que nuevas preguntas por contestar. Este artículo sugiere algunas áreas que ameritan más investigación.
While LGBT studies have been problematizing normative categories of sexuality primarily in Western cultures, the status of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals in non-Western societies remains understudied. This study examines the political attitudes toward LGBT individuals in Turkish society and explores the experiences of transgender individuals. While Turkey holds a strong economic position among Western countries, the situation of sexual minorities lags behind international standards. This study explores two research questions. First, what is the Turkish government’s outlook for the LGBT community? Secondly, what kind of problems and challenges do trans-individuals experience in Turkey? This study first introduces a macro-level analysis of the politics of gender identity in Turkey by analyzing the debates of four deputies in the Turkish Parliament, each representing their parties’ disparate viewpoints. Secondly, a micro-level analysis of previously collected interviews with twenty-five trans-individuals are also examined that shed light on the difficulties of being a trans-individual in Turkey. The content analysis shows that trans-individuals experience physical, sexual, and emotional violence, in addition to experiencing discrimination in employment, housing, and healthcare. The findings of this micro-level analysis elucidate the continuous discrimination, inequality, and violence that these individuals experience, while the macro-level analysis portrays the state’s discriminatory policies toward LGBT individuals in Turkey.
In the EU accession literature, there is a tendency to downplay the role of discourse in facilitating norm diffusion, particularly when domestic resistance towards European norms is strong. The assumptions in this thinking are that critical deliberations and civil society activism simply lack the potency required to elicit norm conforming behaviour in accession states and that the only realistic hope for achieving this rests with the introduction of material incentives that make the costs of normative adaptation lower than its rewards. I focus on developments in the field of LGBT politics to challenge these assumptions and to specify the conditions under which discursive strategies are likely to stimulate the domestic uptake of contentious norms. I highlight shared identity as a crucial factor in the success of discursive influence, contending that under conditions of identity convergence, a cultural environment prevails in which norm promoters can more effectively ignite a process of deliberative reflection, shame norm-violators into conformance and cultivate resonance around controversial ideas. I develop these arguments through an analysis of LGBT and accession politics in Croatia and Serbia, contending that Croatia's strong identification with Europe accelerated LGBT recognition there while Serbia's relatively weaker identification with Europe slowed it down.
Europeanisation, LGBT activism, and non-heteronormativity in the post-Yugoslav space : an introduction / Bojan Bilić -- Discontents of professionalisation : sexual politics and activism in Croatia in the context of EU accession / Nicole Butterfield -- The First European Festival of Lesbian and Gay Film was Yugoslav : dismantling the geotemporality of Europeanisation in Slovenia / Sanja Kajinić -- Growing oppression, growing resistance : LGBT activism and Europeanisation in Macedonia / Ana Miškovska Kajevska -- Europe [heart symbol] gays? : Europeanisation and pride parades in Serbia / Bojan Bilić -- Queering as Europeanisation, Europeanisation as queering : challenging homophobia in everyday life in Montenegro / Danijel Kalezić and Čarna Brković -- From Orientalism to homonationalism : queer politics, Islamophobia, and Europeanisation in Kosovo / Piro Rexhepi -- On the other side of an ethnocratic state? : LGBT activism in post-Dayton Bosnia and Herzegovina / Adelita Selmić -- Beyond EUtopian promises and disillusions : a conclusion / Bojan Bilić and Paul Stubbs
Ideas Lost in Time: LGBT Politics vs. Queer Theory and Practice in Poland and in the ‘West’ The text explores ways in which “Western” ideas of LGBT and queer politics travel and are nested in Poland. I am here particularly interested in the functioning of the notion of time. I claim that Polish LGBT activism cannot be simply categorised as “identitarian” or “queer,” because it exists in much different geo-temporality than that of “the West.” I focus on Campaign Against Homophobia, the largest and best-know Polish LGBT organisation. Their choice of strategies and discourses can be considered a certain queer mixture of ideas as represented through various historical stages of Western LGBT activism. I will explore reasons for this. Upon the emergence of LGBT activism in Poland in the 1990s, “Western” ideas were unanimously applied without much attempt at understanding their cultural and historical context. At one point in the Polish history, “Western time” simply took over, becoming a “universal time” for both the West and CEE. However, what is continuity from the Western perspective, here is a knotted and de-historicised cultural phenomenon – as much imposed as welcome – of which Polish LGBT activists and academics are trying to make sense. Thus, rather than repeating dominant discourses of CEE trying to “catch up with” Europe, I intend to look into much finer processes of eaving and sawing geo-temporal realities into Polish LGBT activism.
The paper deals with the situation of sexual minorities in Bangladesh. Bangladesh, although historically a relatively tolerant and open-minded Muslim majority country, remains conservative on sexual matters. Therefore, large sections of Bangladesh's society seem to reject each sexual orientation which is perceived as "non-traditional" and portrays heterosexuality as the only accepted cultural norm. In consequence, homosexuality is becoming criminalized to such an extent that not only cultural values and societal norms but also national laws are in serious conflict with internationally accepted human, gender, and sexual rights.