Intro -- POLAND CONDITIONS, ISSUES, AND FOREIGN RELATIONS -- POLAND CONDITIONS, ISSUES, AND FOREIGN RELATIONS -- CONTENTS -- PREFACE -- Chapter 1 POLAND AND ITS RELATIONS WITH THE UNITED STATES -- SUMMARY -- INTRODUCTION AND ISSUES FOR CONGRESS -- DOMESTIC OVERVIEW -- Political Dynamics -- Economy -- Defense Modernization -- Response to the Migration Crisis20 -- RELATIONS WITH THE UNITED STATES -- Defense Relations -- Economic Ties -- Visa Waiver Program -- RELATIONS WITH RUSSIA -- ENERGY SECURITY -- End Notes -- Chapter 2 POLAND 2014 HUMAN RIGHTS REPORT* -- EXECUTIVE SUMMARY -- SECTION 1. RESPECT FOR THE INTEGRITY OF THE PERSON, INCLUDING FREEDOM FROM -- a. Arbitrary or Unlawful Deprivation of Life -- b. Disappearance -- c. Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman, or Degrading Treatment or Punishment -- Prison and Detention Center Conditions -- Physical Conditions -- Administration -- Independent Monitoring -- d. Arbitrary Arrest or Detention -- Role of the Police and Security Apparatus -- Arrest Procedures and Treatment of Detainees -- Pretrial Detention -- Detention of Rejected Asylum Seekers or Stateless Persons -- e. Denial of Fair Public Trial -- Trial Procedures -- Political Prisoners and Detainees -- Civil Judicial Procedures and Remedies -- Regional Human Rights Court Decisions -- Property Restitution -- f. Arbitrary Interference with Privacy, Family, Home, or Correspondence -- SECTION 2. RESPECT FOR CIVIL LIBERTIES, INCLUDING -- a. Freedom of Speech and Press -- Freedom of Speech -- Press Freedoms -- Violence and Harassment -- Censorship or Content Restrictions -- Libel Laws/National Security -- Internet Freedom -- Academic Freedom and Cultural Events -- b. Freedom of Peaceful Assembly and Association -- Freedom of Assembly -- Freedom of Association -- c. Freedom of Religion.
The author investigates influence of political changes in Poland and Central Europe on tourism development. The text is written in a form of essay, what permits to jump from descriptive to synthetic forms of analysis. She uses of many examples of social behaviours of Poles trying to omit restrictions of traveling abroad, and many other cases showing the core of a great need for new self-identity in a newly integrated Europe. Where is tourism role in contemporary geopolitical changes in Poland and Europe? The author tries to describe the problem posing the questions fare out of routine. ; The Higher School of Tourism and Foreign Languages in Warsaw ; Elżbieta Puchnarewicz
Poland is grappling with the need to create an efficient market economy and democratic civil society. The socialist legacy includes mistrust of judicial control and strong reliance on public prosecutors, and some social organizations, in representative litigation. A new draft Act on group litigation adopts a careful but informed approach to modern problems, based on opt in, with strong judicial management and a number of antiabuse mechanisms. [Reprinted by permission of Sage Publications Inc., copyright The American Academy of Political and Social Science.]
Report for the European Commission for Democracy through Law ; The right to freedom of assembly is a fundamental right guaranteed by the Polish Constitution. The Law on Assemblies of 1990 regulates matters concerning assemblies in Poland such as procedure, protection and restrictions of assemblies. Authorities in Poland dispose of very limited discretion in prohibiting an assembly, and it is not the role of public officials or administrative courts to analyse ideas and concepts expressed at an assembly either through the prism of their own convictions or the convictions of mainstream society. The legal situation regulating spontaneous assemblies, counter-demonstrations, flash mobs and gatherings organised by means of new technologies is not accurately determined in the Polish legal system. In general, Polish regulations are consistent with the requirements of the European Commission for Democracy through Law. ; European Commission for Democracy through Law
Niniejszy materiał jest udostępniony na licencji Creative Commons – Uznanie autorstwa - Użycie niekomercyjne - Bez utworów zależnych 3.0 DE. Pełne postanowienia tej licencji są dostępne pod: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/de/legalcode ; This paper presents the process of building an independent Polish state during the First World War, which, from the Polish perspective, was the most important result of this conflict. The article focuses mainly on the political and military developments in the Polish territories between 1914 and 1921. These include the internationalization of the Polish question, Polish political and military activity, occupation regimes in the Polish territories, the collapse of foreign authorities in Poland, the establishment of Polish political institutions, and Polish social and cultural life. ; Agnieszka Uziębło
A decade of reforms has changed almost every aspect of university functioning. Poland has moved from privatization to deprivatization and from deinstitutionalization to reinstitutionalization of the research mission of its universities. The research internationalization agenda has led to introducing quantitative, research-focused indicators and new funding and assessment systems. However, the system of incentives to internationalize Polish research has so far proved to be ineffective. These reforms were pursued in politically turbulent times.