The fall and rise of religion in international relations : history and theory / Timothy Samuel Shah and Daniel Philpott -- Secularism and international relations theory / Elizabeth Shakman Hurd -- Another Great Awakening? International relations theory and religion / Michael Barnett -- Religion, rationality, and violence / Monica Duffy Toft -- Religion and international relations : no leap of faith required / Daniel H. Nexon -- In the service of state and nation : religion in East Asia / Il Hyun Cho and Peter J. Katzenstein -- Religion's contribution to international relations theory / Emily Cochran and Jack Snyder
Human rights advocates continue to use shaming as a central tool despite recognizing its declining effectiveness. Shame is indeed a potent motivator, but its effects are often counterproductive for this purpose. Especially when wielded by cultural outsiders in ways that appear to condemn local social practices, shaming is likely to produce anger, resistance, backlash, and deviance from outgroup norms, or denial and evasion. Shaming can easily be interpreted as a show of contempt, which risks triggering fears for the autonomy and security of the group. In these circumstances, established religious and elite networks can employ traditional normative counter-narratives to recruit a popular base for resistance. If this counter-mobilization becomes entrenched in mass social movements, popular ideology, and enduring institutions, the unintended consequences of shaming may leave human rights advocates farther from their goal.