Essence of Anthropology -- Biology and evolution -- Living primates -- Human evolution -- The Neolithic revolution: the domestication of plants and animals -- The emergence of cities and states -- Modern human diversity: race and racism -- The characteristic of culture -- Language and communication -- Social identity, personality and gender -- Subsistence and exchange -- Sex, marriage and family -- Kinship and other methods of grouping -- Politics, power and violence -- Spirituality, religion and the supernatural -- Global changes and the role of anthropology
Mr. W. J. Shepard, in a review of my work, Die moderne Demokratie, remarks that I have forgotten its spirit in the study of its forms. "It is not the vitalizing spirit," he writes, "the impelling motive force, the broadly based popular sentiment of democracy that is of interest, but only the forms and mechanism ‥‥ of democratic-republican states." Now I have in the fifth chapter of the second book presented the theory of political democracy, in the sixth that of social democracy, and in the seventh that of democratic socialism; and in the first of these three chapters I have discussed popular sovereignty and active citizenship, the supremacy of the majority in a democracy, the unlimited constituent power of the people (pouvoir constituant), in which European science has conceived the essence of this form of the state to reside in contradistinction to other forms. But Mr. Shepard has a different conception of its nature. He has raised an interesting question in this connection which I should like to discuss in the following pages.Brief though his statement on this point is, no one can doubt that he considers the supremacy of public opinion as the essence of democracy, since he writes: "No discussion of the nature, elements and effects of public opinion, no appreciation of the spirit of democracy is to be found in the covers of this volume." As a matter of fact I have treated of this subject in the above-mentioned first division of the fifth chapter, which is devoted to the discussion of popular sovereignty, though certainly in the brief compass which appeared to me sufficient for the understanding of the nature of democracy.