The ethics of presidents are best understood by looking at the standards they create for those who work for them or the standards that are forced on them by Congress or the courts. Here, an attempt is made to remove the radical distinction between normative values & ethical codes that dominates research in this area. Offered in place is a more interesting approach that views codes, executive orders, & ethics systems as ethical metaphors that attempt to capture what presidents think public service is about. Focus is on the expansion of ethical standards for public officials. 2 Tables. Adapted from the source document.