Die Studie erfolgte auf Anregung des Zentralrats der FDJ. Im Mittelpunkt der Untersuchung stehen spezielle Bedingungen und Probleme der Tätigkeit von Jugendbrigaden/jungen Werktätigen während ihres Einsatzes in Ost-Berlin. Die schriftliche Befragung ermittelt die Motive der Teilnahme an der Berlin-Initiative; Arbeits- und Lebensbedingungen der Teilnehmer; Leistungsmerkmale im "sozialistischen Wettbewerb". Insgesamt wurden 520 Teilnehmer an der "FDJ-Initative Berlin" befragt. (pmb)
Brazil is one of the very few developing countries to have demonstrated continued support for energy efficiency and energy R&D during the re-structuring process of its power sector. Regulation enacted in the country helped to create significant funds for energy efficiency and energy R&D projects, reverting the initial decline in funding and activities during the initial stages of the re-structuring and privatization process. About US $ 300 million are collected annually from utilities in Brazil. The allocation of resources has changed very significantly since the initial implementation of the wires charge in 1998. This is due both to successive rulings by National Electricity Regulator (ANEEL), as well as to laws passed in 2000 and 2004. The country created two separate funding schemes from a 1 % levy on utilities ’ annual revenues (wires charges). Part of the resources are administered by the utilities themselves under the supervision of ANEEL and the other part is managed by a board of representatives from government, academia and private sector. This paper reviews the recent achievements from compulsory investments made by utilities and the National Public Benefit fund. The Brazilian experience suggests that in spite of the importance of securing funds for energy efficiency and R&D, better governance of these efforts is required both for the regulated utility programs and for the centrally managed public benefit fund. The lack of coordination amongst the main actors-- regulator, utilities, and government-- has become evident. This fragmented approach together with the still fragile institutional setting has precluded a strategic view as to how to maximize the social benefits from EE and R&D investments. Also, the experience in Brazil has demonstrated that it is necessary to clearly establish broad public energy policy goals in order to guide the regulator’s and utilities ’ efforts to apply the resources available more cost-effectively.