Defense republican, republican fight, republican front, republican meritocracy, equality republican, republican secularism, etc., expressions abound, especially during the electoral evenings, combining the adjective Republican to a noun. These expressions, familiar for many sound like recognition signals. They replay the rally reflexes of the divided dispersed forces against the supposed enemies of the Republic. Adapted from the source document.
Secular? Theocratic? The case of the Israeli state defies the usual categories & gives rise to much confusion; for this reason, it requires a nuanced approach. The secular cause is itself divided over the strategy to pursue. For moderates, the religious monopoly in the area of personal law must be broken by demanding, in particular, that civil marriage be made an option alongside religious marriage. For radicals, by contrast, arrangements of this type, however important they may otherwise be, only mask the intrinsic ambiguity that stems from the close ties between nation & religion (and not just between synagogue & state). After examining the political, cultural & demographic factors that have in recent decades given increased weight to religious forces in political & social life, one should take stock of the factors that provide a counterweight to religious expansion. These include the active intervention of the Supreme Court in religious affairs, the preponderance of a secular ethos shared by the economic, political & intellectual elites centered in Tel-Aviv & the presence of CIS immigrants -- a portion of whom are not Jewish according to religious criteria -- and immigrant workers who have long resided in Israel. Adapted from the source document.
This article traces the controversy generated by the political enterprise to legislate against full veils in the public space in France. The decision made in 2010 by the Conseil Constitutionnel validating the law and putting an end to the constitutional controversy could be interpreted as the byproduct of both a legicentric tradition and the French assertive secularism. Yet, stating this tells nothing about how this decision was made possible. Delving into the law-making process, the article shows how seriously the constitutional law has been taken into account and follows the way political stakeholders and legal experts have disputed and adjusted with one another. It highlights the virtue of process-tracing analysis to understand, how constitutional law frames the political game and determines the path of the law, and conversely how political and legal stakeholders manage to enlist the law to their political enterprise, forcing it to speak against full veils. Adapted from the source document.
There are today intense debates about Islam, secularism and democracy. The arguments raised by the various protagonists refer to implicit representations of the possible relationships between these three terms. They also refer to predetermined conceptions of the historical processes at work in contemporary Muslim societies. We might try to clarify the meaning given to each of these three terms and, consequently, take a new look at the concepts that are widely circulated in the contemporary debate. Adapted from the source document.
Secularism, Humanism, Québec, tolerance Laïcité et humanisme : un titre et deux mots de grande actualité tant au Québec qu’ailleurs dans le monde. Cet ouvrage, avec des contributions d’acteurs clés qui alimentent le débat sur le sens et la définition de la laïcité dans le Québec du xxie siècle, arrive à point nommé.Les textes de Thomas De Koninck, Jacques Dufresne, Georges Leroux, Guillaume Rousseau, Mathieu Bock-Côté, Normand Baillargeon, Mohamed Lotfi et Charles Le Blanc ne défendent pas une thèse particulière à propos de la laïcité. Ils forment plutôt un ensemble de réflexions polyphoniques qui se présentent comme une contribution philosophique, juridique, politique et sociologique à la question de la neutralité religieuse de l’État.À la fin du recueil figure un texte de Voltaire sur la tolérance, qui vient à la fois inscrire les questions abordées dans une perspective historique et illustrer le caractère continu d’un débat dont cet ouvrage se veut l’un des nombreux échos.
For non-European countries such as Turkey & Mexico, the move toward modernity has meant the adoption of the French model of secularism rather than the Anglo-Saxon process of secularization. Today, however, the emergence of public Islam, of Islam in the public space -- as exemplified by the debate about the veil in France as well as in Turkey -- represents a challenge for the Republic whose secular & mono-cultural foundation is questioned. The contemporary Turkish experience offers a good opportunity to analyze the complex & tensed relationship between Republican secularism & the Muslim presence & to stress the dangers of confusing the public space & the Republic. The Turkish candidacy to membership of the European Union has revived & amplified the debate: Does Europe want to be a system of boundaries aiming to protect her against what she considers as the "other," or does she want to show its political capacity to redraw these boundaries by projecting herself into the future? Adapted from the source document.
From 1967 till today, the gendered subjectivities of Palestinian activists incarcerated in Israel have evolved according to their political and armed mobilizations and the conditions of their detention. Up till the First Intifada, prison was a site of training for political women who asserted their activism in the context of secular parties (Fatah, leftwing parties) and feminism. When, in the course of interrogations, the Israeli intelligence services turned to farms of physical and psychological abuse tied to their gender and sexuality, these women violently experienced the conflict at the level of their bodies. In response, they resignified these stigmata as so many markers of their engagement. Following the Oslo peace agreement, their actions became more diversified. Faced with the repression of the Second Intifada, they threw themselves into martyrdom operations. Violence, however, is denied in their accounts and bodies appear sexualized and feminine. Secular activists were then joined by others belonging to religious parties (Hamas, Islamic Jihad). As the experience of incarceration became commonplace, new ways of living beyond prison gradually emerged. Former inmates established feminine collective networks and their activism and periods of imprisonment came to be seen as sources of transformation for gender relations. Adapted from the source document.
Terrorist groups active in the Sahel region have been routed by French forces in recent months. Hundreds of radical fighters and several key leaders have been eliminated and almost all of Mali has been taken back. This is attributed to the excellent preparation and execution of Operation Serval and the support offered to France by all border states, combined with the weak local powerbase of the Islamists and the internal divisions within the various radical groups, as spectacularly illustrated by the National Movement for the Liberation of Azawad (MNLA), which switched sides. This secular Tuareg organization, initially allied to the hard-line Salafi group Ansar One, itself linked to Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM). was ousted by its partners and ended up fighting against them, alongside French forces. A note of caution, however. Although it has been considerably weakened, the jihadist threat has not been eradicated completely. Adapted from the source document.