"Transnational" is a frequently mentioned key word in international relations today; it is used to denote in a simplifying manner an organization working beyond state boundaries and acting independently from traditional state authorities. The scholarly recognition of such actors occurred relatively late in the field and advanced with the acceleration of globalizing economic, political, cultural, and social processes. Despite the appearance of transnational actors as a topical and palpable concern for academics and practitioners alike, questions of conceptual vagueness and relational indeterminacy remain, and the continual proliferation of these entities lend urgency to the need for more scholarly attention to these agents.
Transnational Actors in War and Peace explores the identities, organization, strategies, and influence of transnational actors involved in contentious politics, armed conflict, and peacemaking over the last one hundred years. While the study of transnational politics has been a rapidly growing field, to date, the disparate array of actors have not been analyzed alongside each other, making it difficult to develop a common theoretical framework or determine their relative influence on international stability, war, and peace. This work seeks to fill this gap by bringing together a diverse set of scholars focused on a range of transnational actors, such as: pirates, foreign fighters, terrorists, private military security companies, criminal networks, religious groups, diasporas, political exiles, NGOs, environmental activists, global news agencies, and feminist advocacy networks. Each chapter examines a different transnational actor and is structured around five components: how the actor is organized; how it interacts with other actors; how it communicates both internally and externally; how it influences conflict/peace; and how it reflects developments in transnationalism
A proper understanding of the development of nationalism should incorporate the direct and indirect influences of religion. To focus on the current international order is to note that various aspects of international conflict have significantly changed in recent years, with frequent involvement of religious, ethnic, and cultural non-state actors. The type of religious nationalism affects what type of nation state develops. The stronger the religious influence on the national movement, the greater the likelihood that discrimination and human rights violations will occur. In addition, there are scholars who argue that the activities of transnational religious actors—such as the Roman Catholic Church, the Organisation of the Islamic Conference (OIC), and al Qaeda—can undermine state sovereignty. The premise here is that globalization facilitates the growth of transnational networks of religious actors. Feeding off each other's ideas and perhaps aiding each other with funds, these actors and institutions are bodies whose main priority is the well-being and advance of their transnational religious community. But opinions about the current involvement of religion in international relations and its impact on international order tend to be polarized. On the one hand, the re-emergence of religion in international relations is often seen to present increased challenges to international order, especially from extremist Islamist organizations. On the other hand, some religious actors may help advance international order—for example the Roman Catholic Church and its widespread encouragement to authoritarian regimes to democratize—by significantly affecting international governments.
16 pages ; International audience ; This essay is drawn from wider research on Palestinian transnational spaces in the UK, and based on an analysis of general publications, newsletters, various resources available on websites, pamphlets, and observations during activities organised by these groups. After introducing the situation of Palestinians in the UK, I will situate the present study in the historical context of the formation of transnational practices among these communities. I will then consider grassroots solidarity networks engaged in development projects in Palestine, as part of wider campaigns to support Palestinian human and national rights. I will mainly focus on two campaigns - BIG and Stop the Wall Campaigns - that involve actors in the UK, Palestine and worldwide to stress on new developments in grassroots politics in relation to Palestine, since these practices epitomise the interaction between local and global processes in the formation of transnational politics. Finally, this will enable me to examine the relationship between transnational politics, nation-state building and local political practices in pro-Palestinian advocacy, underlying the possible role of these actions in reshaping social contexts, both in the UK and in Palestine.